I originally got this information by way of an email from Martin Hickey... who apparently cut and pasted it from a piece that was written by Keith Burgess at http://woodsrunnersdiary.blogspot.com.
In the 1756-1760 journal of Louis Antoine de Bougainville, there is an inventory of clothing and equipment issued to French soldiers going on a winter expedition in the New World. It reads as follows:
One wool cap
Two cotton shirts
One pair of mitasses
(A type of legging)
Two hanks of thread
Two pair of deerskin shoes
One dressed deerskin
Two portage collars
One butcher's knife
One pair of snowshoes
*One tarpaulin per officer, one large one to every four men*
Two Siamese knives
(clasp or folding knives).
(the word "tinderbox" was also used to denote flint & steel).
One drag rope
(fits the end of a cleaning rod or ramrod, for wrapping tow around for cleaning the barrel)
(could be a bearskin, or could mean a course blanket).
Two pair of stockings
One pair of mittens
Here at last we have mention of a "tarpaulin", a canvas shelter; "One
tarpaulin per officer, one large one to every four men". The translation
from French to English could also mean an oilcloth or a plain untreated
canvas. In the Webster's dictionary a tarpaulin is a: "canvas treated with
tar or oil". The Oxford dictionary says: "waterproof cloth Esp. of tarred
canvas". Tar in the 18th century was pine pitch.